Phonics - Phase Two
In Phase 2, letters and their sounds are introduced one at a time. This phase covers 19 different grapheme- phoneme correspondences (GPCs).
Phoneme means the smallest unit of sound. There are 44 phonemes in English. Phonemes can be put together to make words.
Grapheme means the way of writing down a phoneme. Graphemes can be made up from 1 letter e.g. p, 2 letters e.g. sh, 3 letters e.g. tch or 4 letters e.g ough.
Knowing a GPC, means being able to match a phoneme to a grapheme and vice versa.
A set of sounds is taught each week, in the following sequence:
|Set 1||Set 2||
|Set 4||Set 5|
|s, a, t, p||i, n, m, d||g, o, c, k||ck, e, u, r||h b f,
ff, l, ll, ss
As soon as each set of letters is introduced, children will be encouraged to use their knowledge of the letter sounds to blend and sound out words. For example, they will learn to blend the sounds s-a-t to make the word sat. They will also start learning to segment words. For example, they might be asked to find the letter sounds that make the word tap from a small selection of magnetic letters.
Blending- This involves looking at a written word, looking at each grapheme and using knowledge of GPCs to work out which phoneme each grapheme represents and then merging these phonemes together to make a word. This is the basis of reading.
Oral Segmenting - This is the act of hearing a whole word and then splitting it up into the phonemes that make it. Children need to develop this skill before they will be able to segment words to spell them.
Segmenting - This involves hearing a word, splitting it up into the phonemes that make it, using knowledge of GPCs to work out which graphemes represent those phonemes and then writing those graphemes down in the right order. This is the basis of spelling.
Blending and segmenting are taught as reversible processes.
Phase 2 Set 1 Letters and Words
In Set 1, the first four sounds are introduced and seven words can be used for segmenting and blending:
s, a, t, p - at, a, sat, pat, tap, sap, as
Phase 2 Set 2 Letters and Words
Set 2 includes four new sounds. As each new sound is learnt, children will be able to sound out several new words, as follows:
i - it, is, sit, sat, pit, tip, pip, sip
n - an, in, nip, pan, pin, tin, tan, nap
m - am, man, mam, mat, map, Pam, Tim, Sam
d - dad, and, sad, dim, dip, din, did, Sid
Phase 2 Set 3 Letters and Words
Set 3 introduces four new sounds, with 28 new decodable words suggested, including five high frequency words, shown in italics below:
g - tag, gag, gig, gap, nag, sag, gas, pig, dig
o - got, on, not, pot, top, dog, pop, God, Mog
c - can, cot, cop, cap, cat, cod
k - kid, kit, Kim, Ken
high frequency words: the, to, I, go, no
Phase 2 Set 4 Letters and Words
Set 4 introduces four new graphemes, with 36 new decodable words suggested. For the first time, some of the suggested words contain two syllables, such as pocket, sunset etc.
ck - kick, sock, sack, dock, pick, sick, pack, ticket, pocket
e - get, pet, ten, net, pen, peg, met, men, neck
u - up, mum, run, mug, cup, sun, tuck, mud, sunset
r - rim, rip, ram, rat, rag, rug, rot, rocket, carrot
Phase 2 Set 5 Letters and Words
Set 5 introduces seven graphemes (three of which are doubled letters), with 69 new decodable words suggested.
h - had, him, his, hot, hut, hop, hum, hit, hat, has, hack, hug
b - but, big, back, bet, bad, bag, bed, bud, beg, bug, bun, bus, Ben, bat, bit, bucket, beckon, rabbit
f, ff - of, if, off, fit, fin, fun, fig, fog, puff, huff, cuff, fan, fat
l, ll - lap, let, leg, lot, lit, bell, fill, doll, tell, sell, Bill, Nell, dull, laptop
ss - ass, less, hiss, mass, mess, boss, fuss, hiss, pass, kiss, Tess, fusspot
This Phase also introduces 'tricky words' - these are high frequency words which are not easily decodeable - the, to, I, no, go, into.
The typical duration of this phase is 6 weeks. Assessments are carried out at the end of week 3 and then again at the end of week 6 in order to ascertain whether the children are ready to move onto phase 3 or whether they need to repeat phase 2.